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Battery Management System for Lithium-ion Battery

Battery Management System for Lithium-ion Battery requires a proper management system that makes them long-lasting and better to use. Maybe you have seen many people claiming that their battery is not working well or cannot use it for a long time. So the only problem is that people don’t know about the battery management system of lithium ion battery.

Whenever we use any machinery, we manage it after regular intervals of time, like if you have a car or bike, you will exchange oil open your vehicle and clean it and do many other things that make the vehicle more efficient, same like this the batteries also works like a machine.

They also need proper management, like you have to keep them in a suitable environment. If you want to clear it more, then take the example of the human organs, if we discuss the liver, then it is an integral part of our body, and we cannot survive without it. People with a liver problem or whose liver is not working well cannot live for long and die just after their liver is not working.

Same the battery management system is an important device that is pre-installed in the batteries and helps the batteries work efficiently.

What is BMS for lithium-ion batteries?

The BSM is also known as the battery management system important for lithium-ion batteries as it controls the battery cell, works as a communicator for other devices connected to the battery, measures temperature and voltage, and manages SOC calculation.

Battery Management System for Lithium-ion Battery

This technology is connected with the battery pack because it has to maintain the value of voltage and current according to the duration of time for your device in which you are using the lithium-ion battery. Here are some functions that a BMS provides to your battery.

  • Monitoring the battery
  • Providing battery protection
  • Estimating the battery’s operational state
  • Continually optimizing battery performance
  • Reporting operational status to external devices

In the BMS, the battery means the entire pack, which includes all the cells, the battery management system, and other things necessary for the battery. You must remember that this system monitors the entire functions specific to cells or groups of cells.

The cells used in the lithium-ion rechargeable batteries have a high energy density. They are considered the ideal battery for devices like mobile phones and laptops and are now even used in electric vehicles.

The duty of the BMS is not very easy because it is responsible for all the challenging and complex actions in the lithium-ion battery, including the electrical, digital, control, thermal, and hydraulic actions.

The BMS is also considered the most intelligent part of the lithium-ion batteries, as it is responsible for all the monitoring and management system.

Working process of Battery Management System

The battery management system doesn’t have any specific criteria because this technology is designed according to the features that a battery requires for adequately working. Here are the few features that match the following

  • Size of the battery pack, cost, and complexity
  • Safety, application of battery, warranty, and the lifespan
  • They need to get proper certificates from the Government so that in the case of any danger
  • As all the manufacturers don’t use the same type of battery management system

Different types of battery management systems are available that manufacturers install in the batteries according to the need and size of the battery. But this management has concerns more with battery protection management and capacity management. The protection management has two key points the one is electrical protection which prevents the battery from being damaged if you are using it outside the SOA.

The second one is a thermal protection system that controls and maintains the temperature of the battery when it is working under the SOA.

Types of Battery Management Systems

The battery management system has various types depending on the battery size, shape, and working ability. The battery management system is also categorized according to the installation system, which is how the lithium cells are arranged in the battery.

Centralized BMS Architecture

In this type, the pack has only one battery management system, and all the battery cells are directly wired with this single BSM. It has many benefits compared to the other battery management system in terms of costs because it has only one BMS. Hence, manufacturers only need one BMS to install in the battery.

No doubt that there are also a few disadvantages of this battery management system, as the battery is directly connected to the BMS, so it needs many ports for connection, and this problem can cause a troubleshot due to a lot of cables, wires, and connectors.

Modular BMS Topology

Like the Centralized BMS, the modular BMS has many duplicate modules connected with different wires and cables. All these sub-modules work under the primary BMS module and are connected with the peripheral equipment.

But with the help of the same module system, you can easily maintain and reduce the troubleshoot problem to extend to larger batteries without facing any problems quickly. The problem with these battery management systems is that they are comparatively high in cost and may be duplicated according to the use of the application.

Primary/Subordinate BMS

The primary BMS is also similar if you see it conceptually, but this is only limited to providing the information, and the master has to control and deal with the external communication. The price of this battery management system may not be high because its functionality is not very complex and of many unused features.

Distributed BMS Architecture

This is slightly different from all the other modules because the hardware and software systems are connected with the cells through a bundle of wires in this battery management system. This BMS has control and monitors all the electronic hardware that is placed directly on the cells of the lithium-ion battery.

So in this way, the battery is connected with many wires to the battery management system, so different BMS requires a different communication system and many other things that are not similar to the battery management systems.

This battery management system’s price is higher than the other BMS, as its features are more advanced than others.

Importance of Battery Management System

The BMS plays an essential role in the working efficiency of a lithium-ion battery during charging and discharging. It controls the voltage, current, and temperature of the battery from exceeding its limits in case of any danger.

If the limit is exceeded for a long time, it can cause thermal danger for your battery, so the BMS plays a vital role in controlling and monitoring the battery.

The BMS also affects the performance of the battery pack, as the thermal and electrical management is monitored by the battery management system. For electrically optimizing the battery, you need to balance all the cells.

The battery management system also prevents a battery from getting too hot because it continually cools down the battery; furthermore, it ensures that the thermal management controls the Goldilocks regions of operation for optimal performance.

Benefits of the Battery Management System

There are different benefits of the BMS like it allows you to use the battery in a safe environment; here are some benefits of the BMS for lithium-ion batteries.

Life span and Reliability

The battery management system makes the lithium-ion batteries long-lasting, as the BMS monitors the thermal and electrical management. So in this way, the lithium cells can work under optimal conditions and gives you maximum functionality.

Functional Safety

The battery management system controls the thermal management system, preventing the lithium-ion cells from getting too hot during the charging and discharging. Especially for the large-size batteries used in electric vehicles, the BMS ensures the functional safety of not only the lithium batteries but also the safety of your devices.

Performance and Range

The BMS increases the performance of a battery as it balances all the cells connected. Without using the BMS, charging, discharging, temperature effects, and general aging render themselves useless.

Smart BMS for Lithium-ion Battery

The smart BMS is an in-one battery management system for the intelligent batteries primarily used in Lithium Iron Phosphate, specifically for the 12V system, like for vehicles and boats.

Disadvantages Of The Battery Management System

The battery management system has a lot of benefits and plays a vital role in lithium-ion batteries. Still, on the other hand, there are also a few disadvantages of the BMS. But the disadvantages are less compared to the benefits and importance.

The main disadvantage of using the BMS is that it requires a lot of ports for connecting the wires and different cables that are further connected with the lithium-ion cells.

The manufacturers need to design the battery pack topology for monitoring each cell, which is also a big hurdle.

Conclusion- Battery Management System of Lithium Ion Battery
The BMS is a pre-installed technology used in the batteries for optimal results; it is connected to the battery cells through different wires and cables. The primary function of the battery management system is to control the thermal and electrical management of the battery; furthermore, it also affects the chemical reactions in the lithium-ion batteries.
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